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Yeungnam Univ J Med > Volume 15(1); 1998 > Article
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine 1998;15(1):97-113.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1998.15.1.97    Published online June 30, 1998.
Changes of Blood Gases, Plasma Catecholamine Concentrations and Hemodynamic Data in Anesthetized Dogs during Graded Hypoxia Induced by Nitrous Oxide.
Sae Yeon Kim, Sun Ok Song, Jung In Bae, Jae Kyu Cheun, Jae Hoon Bae
1Department of Anesthesiology Collage of Medicine, Yeungnam University Taegu, Korea.
2Department of Anesthesiology Collage of Medicine, Keimyung University Taegu, Korea.
3Department of Physiology Collage of Medicine, Keimyung University Taegu, Korea.
Abstract
The sympathoadrenal system plays an important role in homeostasis in widely varing external environments. Conflicting findings, however, have been reported on its response to hypoxia. We investigated the effect of hypoxia an the sympathoadrenal system in dogs under halothane anesthesia by measuring levels of circulating catecholamines in response to graded hypoxia. Ten healthy mongreal dogs were mechanically ventilated with different hypoxic gas mixtures. Graded hypoxia and reoxygenation were induced by progressively decreasing the oxygen fraction in the inhalation gas mixture from 21%(control) to 15%, 10% and 5% at every 5 minutes, and then reoxygenated with 60% oxygen. Mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were measured directly using pressure transducers. Cardiac output was measured by the thermodilutional method. For analysis of blood gas, saturation and content, arterial and mixed venous blood were sampled via the femoral and pulmonary artery at the end of each hypoxic condition. The concentration of plasma catecholamines was determined by radioenzymatic assay. According to the exposure of graded hypoxia, not only did arterial and mixed venous oxygen tension decreased markedly at 10% and 5% oxygen, but also arterial and mixed venous oxygen saturation decreased significantly. An increased trend of the oxygen extraction ratio was seen during graded hypoxia. Cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance were unchanged or increased slightly. Pulmonary arterial pressure(PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance(PVR) were increased by 55%, 76% in 10% oxygen and by 82%, 95% in 5% oxygen, respectively(p<0.01). The concentrations of plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine increased by 75%, 29%, 24% in 15% oxygen and by 382%, 350%, 49% in 5% oxygen. These data suggest that the sympathetic nervous system was activated to maintain homeostasis by modifying blood flow distribution to improve oxygen delivery to tissues by hypoxia, but hemodynamic changes might be blunted by high concentration of nitrous oxide except PAP and PVR. It would be suggested that hemodynamic changes might not be sensitive index during hypoxia induced by high concentration of nitrous oxide exposure.
Key Words: Graded hypoxia, Nitrous oxide, Catecholamine, PAP, PVR
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